Home » Technical Interview Questions » Array Interview Questions » Subset Leetcode

Subset Leetcode


Reading Time - 2 mins

In Subset Leetcode problem we have given a set of distinct integers, nums, print all subsets (the power set).

Note: The solution set must not contain duplicate subsets.

An array A is a subset of an array B if a can be obtained from B by deleting some (possibly, zero or all) elements.

Example

Input:

[1, 2, 3]

Output:

[1], [2], [1, 2], [3], [1, 3], [2, 3], [1, 2, 3]

Approach 1: Iterative solution using bit manipulation

Each subset of a set of n elements can be represented as a sequence of n bits, which corresponds to an integer between 0…2n-1. The ones in the bit sequence indicate which elements are included in the subset.

Algorithm

  1. Declare an array of vectors “ans” in which we will store our all subsets.
  2. Initialize a variable n which represents the size of the nums_array.
  3. Run a loop for I in range 0 to 2n-1
    1. Initialize an array “temp” in which we will store our current subset.
    2. Run a loop for j in range 0 to n-1
      1. If the jth bit of I is set, then add the nums[i] to the temp array.
    3. Add the “temp” array to “ans”
  4. Print the final ans array.

Implementation for Print All Subsets

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
    vector<int> nums = {1, 2, 3};
    vector<vector<int>> ans;
    for (int i = 0; i < (1 << (nums.size())); i++)
    {
        vector<int> temp;
        for (int j = 0; j < nums.size(); j++)
        {
            if (i & (1 << j))
            {
                temp.push_back(nums[j]);
            }
        }
        ans.push_back(temp);
    }
    for (auto x : ans)
    {
        if(x.size()>0)
        cout<<"[";
        for (auto y : x)
        {
            if(y==x[x.size()-1])
            cout << y <<"]";
            else
            cout << y <<", "; 
        }
        cout << endl;
    }
    return 0;
}
[1]
[2]
[1, 2]
[3]
[1, 3]
[2, 3]
[1, 2, 3]

Complexity Analysis for Print All Subsets

Time complexity

We run two nested loops, one of range 2^n and the other of range n. so the final time complexity is O(2^n*n).

READ  Create Maximum Number

Space complexity

There are 2^n-1 subsets and for every subset, we need O(n) space on average so total space complexity is O(2^n * n).

Can we optimize it?

Yes, we can optimize it using backtracking, let’s see how!

Approach 2: Recursive solution using backtracking

We iterate over the nums array and for each position we have two choices, either take the ith element or skip it.

Algorithm

  1. Create a function that takes the arguments, final answer array, current subset array, input array, and a variable “index” which points to the current element in the nums array.
  2. Base condition: If the “index” is equal to the size of the nums array then add our current subset array to the final answer because now we cannot traverse the nums array anymore.
  3. We have two choices now
    1. Skip the current element and call the recursive function with index+1 and all other arguments will remain the same.
    2. Add the current element to the current subset and call the recursive function with index +1 and other arguments. After calling the recursive function, do the backtracking step by removing the last element from the current subset.
  4. Print the final answer.

Understand with example

Let’s take an input array nums = [1,2,3]

Then the recursion tree will look like this:

Subset Leetcode

In the above tree, Subset(i) is the recursive function where i denotes the current index.

Implementation for Print All Subsets

C++ program for Subset Leetcode

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
void subsets(vector<vector<int>> &ans, vector<int> &temp, vector<int> &nums, int i)
{
    if (i == nums.size())
    {
        ans.push_back(temp);
        return;
    }
    subsets(ans, temp, nums, i + 1);
    temp.push_back(nums[i]);
    subsets(ans, temp, nums, i + 1);
    temp.pop_back();
    return;
}
int main()
{
    vector<int> nums = {1, 2, 3};
    vector<vector<int>> ans;
    vector<int> temp;
    subsets(ans, temp, nums, 0);
    for (auto x : ans)
    {
        if(x.size()>0)
        cout<<"[";
        for (auto y : x)
        {
            if(y==x[x.size()-1])
            cout << y <<"]";
            else
            cout << y <<", "; 
        }
        cout << endl;
    }
    return 0;
}
[3]
[2]
[2, 3]
[1]
[1, 3]
[1, 2]
[1, 2, 3]

JAVA program for Subset Leetcode

import java.util.*; 
public class Main
{
    static List<List<Integer>> res;
    public static void subsets(int[] nums,int index,List<Integer> list){
        if(index==nums.length-1){
            res.add(new ArrayList<Integer>(list));
            list.add(nums[index]);
            res.add(new ArrayList<Integer>(list));
            list.remove(list.size()-1);
            return;
        }
        subsets(nums,index+1,list);
        list.add(nums[index]);
        subsets(nums,index+1,list);
        list.remove(list.size()-1);
    }
  public static void main(String[] args) {
      res = new ArrayList<>();
      int[] nums={2, 3, 4};
      List<Integer> list = new ArrayList<Integer>();
      subsets(nums, 0, list);
      for(List<Integer> subset:res){
          for(int i: subset){
              System.out.print(i+", ");
          }
            System.out.println();
      }
  }
}

4, 
3, 
3, 4, 
2, 
2, 4, 
2, 3, 
2, 3, 4, 

Complexity Analysis for Subset Leetcode

Time complexity

For every index, we make 2 recursion calls and there are n elements so total time complexity is O(2^n).

READ  Longest Increasing Subsequence

Space complexity

There are 2^n-1 subsets and for every subset, we need O(n) space on average so total space complexity is O(2^n * n).

References

Array Interview Questions
Graph Interview Questions
LinkedList Interview Questions
String Interview Questions
Tree Interview Questions