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Implementation of Deque using Doubly Linked List


Reading Time - 16 mins


Difficulty Level Easy

Problem Statement

The problem “Implementation of Deque using Doubly Linked List” states that you need to implement the following functions of Deque or Doubly Ended Queue using a doubly linked list,

  1. insertFront(x) : Add element x at the starting of Deque
  2. insertEnd(x) : Add element x at the end of Deque
  3. deleteFront() : Delete an element from the starting of Deque
  4. deleteEnd() : Delete an element from the end of Deque
  5. getFront() : Return the element at the starting of Deque
  6. getEnd() : Return the element at the end of Deque
  7. isEmpty() : Returns whether the Deque is empty
  8. size() : Return the size of Deque
  9. erase() : Delete all the elements of Deque

Example

insertFront(5)
insertEnd(10)
insertEnd(11)
insertFront(19)
getFront()
getEnd()
deleteEnd()
getEnd()
deleteFront()
getFront()
size()
isEmpty()
erase()
isEmpty()
19
11
10
5
2
false
true

Algorithm

To implement a Deque using a doubly linked list. We maintain two pointers front and rear, where front points to the front of a doubly linked list and rear points to the end. Also we need to maintain an integer size, that stores the number of nodes in the Deque.

To insert, delete, or get an element from starting we use the front pointer.

To insert, delete, or get an element from the end we use the rear pointer.

Implementation of Deque using Doubly Linked List

insertFront(x)

To insert an element at the front of Deque, do the following

  1. Create a new node with the required value and call it node.
  2. If the front is null, make the front and rear equals node.
  3. Else, insert the node before front and mark the node as a new front.
  4. Increment size

Time Complexity O(1)

Pseudo Code

Create a new node with required value and call it node
if (front == null) {
  front = rear = node
} else {
  node.next = front
  front.prev = node
  front = node
}
size++

insertEnd(x)

To insert an element at the end of Deque, do the following

  1. Create a new node with required value and call it node.
  2. If rear is null, make front and rear equals node.
  3. Else, insert node after rear and mark the node as new rear.
  4. Increment size

Time Complexity O(1)

Pseudo Code

Create a new node with required value and call it node
if (rear == null) {
  front = rear = node
} else {
  rear.next = node
  node.prev = rear
  rear = node
}
size++

deleteFront()

To delete an element from front of Deque, do the following

  1. If front is null, there is no element to delete, simply return.
  2. If front is equals to rear, there is only 1 node, make front and rear null.
  3. Else, make front equals front.next and delete front.prev
  4. Decrement size
READ  Write a function to get the intersection point of two Linked Lists

Time Complexity = O(1)

Pseudo Code

if (front == null) {
  return
}
if (front == rear) {
  front = rear = null
} else {
  temp = front
  front = front.next
  front.prev = null
  deallocate space for temp
}
size--

deleteEnd()

To delete an element from the end of Deque, do the following

  1. If rear is null, there is no node to delete, simply return.
  2. If rear is equals to front, there is only one node, make front and rear null.
  3. Else make rear as rear.prev and delete rear.next.
  4. Decrement size

Time Complexity = O(1)

Pseudo Code

if (rear == null) {
  return;
}
if (rear == front) {
  front = rear = null
} else {
  temp = rear
  rear = rear.prev
  rear.next = null
  deallocate space for temp
}
size--

getFront()

The front element of the Deque is pointed by front, so if front is not null return front.data

Time Complexity = O(1)

Pseudo Code

if (front != null) {
  return front.data
}
return -1

getEnd()

The end element of Deque is pointed by rear, so if rear is not null return rear.data

Time Complexity = O(1)

Pseudo Code

if (rear != null) {
  return rear.data
}
return -1

isEmpty()

If the Deque is empty both front and rear will be null, so if front is null return true, else return false.

Time Complexity = O(1)

Pseudo Code

if (front == null) {
  return true
}
return false

size()

The size of the Deque is stored in the variable named ‘size’, so simply return size.

Time Complexity = O(1)

Pseudo Code

return size

erase()

Erasing Deque means deleting all the nodes of the Deque. To delete all the nodes do the following,

  1. Set rear as null.
  2. Create a temporary pointer temp, pointing to front.
  3. Traverse in the Deque and repeat step 4, that is, while front is not null repeat step 4.
  4. Set temp as front, front as front.next and deallocate space for temp.
  5. Finally set temp as null and front as null and set size as 0.

Time Complexity = O(n), where n is the number of nodes in the Deque

Pseudo Code

rear = null
Node temp = front
while (front != null) {
  temp = front
  front.prev = null
  front = front.next
  deallocate space for temp
}
temp = front = null
size = 0

Code

Java code for Implementation of Deque using Doubly Linked List

class DequeUsingDoublyLinkedList {
    // class representing Node of a doubly linked list
    static class Node {
        int data;
        Node next, prev;

        public Node(int data) {
            this.data = data;
        }
    }

    // front points to start of Deque and rear points to the end of Deque
    private static Node front = null;
    private static Node rear = null;
    private static int size = 0;

    private static void insertFront(int x) {
        // Create a new Node with required parameters
        Node node = new Node(x);
        if (front == null) {
            // This is the first node to be inserted
            front = rear = node;
        } else {
            // Add the node before front
            node.next = front;
            front.prev = node;
            // update front
            front = node;
        }
        // Increment size
        size++;
    }

    private static void insertEnd(int x) {
        // Create a new Node with required parameters
        Node node = new Node(x);
        if (rear == null) {
            // This is the first node to be inserted
            front = rear = node;
        } else {
            // Insert the node after rear
            rear.next = node;
            node.prev = rear;
            // update rear
            rear = node;
        }
        // Increment size
        size++;
    }
    private static void deleteFront() {
        if (front == null) {
            // no node to delete
            return;
        }
        if (front == rear) {
            // only 1 node is present
            front = rear = null;
        } else {
            // delete front and move front ahead
            front = front.next;
            front.prev = null;
            // Garbage Collector will automatically delete first node
            // as no pointer is pointing to it
        }
        // decrement size
        size--;
    }

    private static void deleteEnd() {
        if (rear == null) {
            // no node to delete
            return;
        }
        if (rear == front) {
            // only 1 node is present
            front = rear = null;
        } else {
            // delete rear and move rear backwards
            rear = rear.prev;
            rear.next = null;
            // Garbage Collector will automatically delete last node
            // as no pointer is pointing to it
        }
        // decrement size
        size--;
    }

    private static int getFront() {
        if (front != null) {
            // front points to first element in Deque, return its data
            return front.data;
        }
        // no node is present
        return -1;
    }

    private static int getEnd() {
        if (rear != null) {
            // rear points to last element in Deque, return its data
            return rear.data;
        }
        // no node is present
        return -1;
    }

    private static boolean isEmpty() {
        if (front == null) {
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }
    
    private static int size() {
        return size;
    }
    
    private static void erase() {
        // mark rear as null
        rear = null;
        // traverse the doubly linked list
        while (front != null) {
            // delete all the prev pointers
            front.prev = null;
            front = front.next;
        }
        // After this deque looks like
        // a -> b -> c -> d ..., all the previous pointers are destroyed
        // No pointer is pointing to a, so Garbage collector will delete the whole Deque
        
        // set size as 0
        size = 0;
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Example
        insertFront(5);                 // 5
        insertEnd(10);                  // 5 <-> 10
        insertEnd(11);                  // 5 <-> 10 <-> 11
        insertFront(19);                // 19 <-> 5 <-> 10 <-> 11
        System.out.println(getFront());
        System.out.println(getEnd());
        deleteEnd();                    // 19 <-> 5 <-> 10
        System.out.println(getEnd());
        deleteFront();                  // 5 <-> 10
        System.out.println(getFront());    
        System.out.println(size());
        System.out.println(isEmpty());
        erase();
        System.out.println(isEmpty());
    }
}
19
11
10
5
2
false
true

C++ Code for Implementation of Deque using Doubly Linked List

#include<bits/stdc++.h> 
using namespace std;

// class representing a tree node
class Node {
    public:
    int data;
    Node *next;
    Node *prev;
    
    Node(int d) {
        data = d;
        next = NULL;
        prev = NULL;
    }
};

// function to create a new node
Node* newNode(int x) {
    Node *node = new Node(x);
    return node;
}

// front points to start of Deque and rear points to the end of Deque
Node *front = NULL;
Node *rear = NULL;
// Variable representing size of Deque
int Size = 0;

void insertFront(int x) {
    // Create a new Node with required parameters
    Node *node = newNode(x);
    if (front == NULL) {
        // This is the first node to be inserted
        front = rear = node;
    } else {
        // Add the node before front
        node->next = front;
        front->prev = node;
        // update front
        front = node;
    }
    // Increment size
    Size++;
}

void insertEnd(int x) {
    // Create a new Node with required parameters
    Node *node = newNode(x);
    if (rear == NULL) {
        // This is the first node to be inserted
        front = rear = node;
    } else {
        // Insert the node after rear
        node->prev = rear;
        rear->next = node;
        // update rear
        rear = node;
    }
    // Increment size
    Size++;
}

void deleteFront() {
    if (front == NULL) {
        // no node to delete
        return;
    }
    if (front == rear) {
        // only 1 node is present
        front = rear = NULL;
    } else {
        // delete front and move front ahead
        Node *temp = front;
        front = front->next;
        front->prev = NULL;
        // deallocate the memory taken by temp
        delete(temp);
    }
    // Decrement size
    Size--;
}

void deleteEnd() {
    if (rear == NULL) {
        // no node to delete
        return;
    }
    if (front == rear) {
        // only 1 node is present
        front = rear = NULL;
    } else {
        // delete rear and move rear backwards
        Node *temp = rear;
        rear = rear->prev;
        rear->next = NULL;
        // deallocate the memory taken by temp
        delete(temp);
    }
    // Decrement size
    Size--;
}

int getFront() {
    if (front != NULL) {
        return front->data;
    }
    return -1;
}

int getEnd() {
    if (rear != NULL) {
        return rear->data;
    }
    return -1;
}

int size() {
    return Size;
}

bool isEmpty() {
    if (front == NULL) {
        return true;
    }
    return false;
}

void erase() {
    // mark rear as null
    rear = NULL;
    // traverse the doubly linked list
    while (front != NULL) {
        Node *temp = front;
        // delete all the prev pointers
        front->prev = NULL;
        front = front->next;
        // Deallocate the memory taken by temp
        delete(temp);
    }
    // Set size as 0
    Size = 0;
}

int main() {
    // Example
    insertFront(5);                 // 5
    insertEnd(10);                  // 5 <-> 10
    insertEnd(11);                  // 5 <-> 10 <-> 11
    insertFront(19);                // 19 <-> 5 <-> 10 <-> 11
    cout<<getFront()<<endl;
    cout<<getEnd()<<endl;
    deleteEnd();                    // 19 <-> 5 <-> 10
    cout<<getEnd()<<endl;
    deleteFront();                  // 5 <-> 10
    cout<<getFront()<<endl;     
    cout<<size()<<endl;
    if (isEmpty()) {
        cout<<"true"<<endl;
    } else {
        cout<<"false"<<endl;
    }
    erase();
    if (isEmpty()) {
        cout<<"true"<<endl;
    } else {
        cout<<"false"<<endl;
    }
    
    return 0;
}
19
11
10
5
2
false
true
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