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Maximum Binary Tree


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In this problem, we have given an array a[ ] of size n. Create the maximum binary tree from the array and return its root node.

It is made from the array using the following steps :

  • The root node of the tree should be the maximum value in the given array.
  • The left subtree is the maximum tree made using the values which occur before the maximum value in the array.
  • The right subtree is the maximum tree made using the values which occur after the maximum value in the array.

 

Maximum Binary Tree

Example of Maximum Binary Tree

Input : a[ ] = {3, 2, 1, 6, 0, 5}

Output : 6

Input : a[ ] = {3, 1, 7, 4}

Output : 7

Recursive Method for Maximum Binary Tree

Algorithm

This is an algorithm of the maximum binary tree.

  1. Initialize an array of size n.
  2. Create the function to create a binary tree that accepts the array, starting index, and last index as parameters.
  3. If starting and ending index are same return NULL.
  4. Else find the maximum element in array for root node.
  5. For left sub-tree recursively call the function for elements which occur before the maximum element in the array.
  6. Similarly for right sub-tree recursively call the function for elements that occur after the maximum element in the array.
  7. Return the root node.

C++ Program

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
class TreeNode{
   public:
   int val;
   TreeNode *left, *right;
   
   TreeNode(int data){
      val = data;
      left = NULL;
      right = NULL;
   }
};

class Max{
    public:
    
    TreeNode* constructMaximumBinaryTree(int nums[], int n){
        return construct(nums, 0, n);
    }
    
    TreeNode* construct(int nums[], int l, int r){
        if (l == r)
            return NULL;
        int max_i = max(nums, l, r);
        TreeNode* root = new TreeNode(nums[max_i]);
        root->left = construct(nums, l, max_i);
        root->right = construct(nums, max_i + 1, r);
        return root;
    }
    
    int max(int nums[], int l, int r) {
        int max_i = l;
        for (int i = l; i < r; i++) {
            if (nums[max_i] < nums[i])
                max_i = i;
        }
        return max_i;
    }
};

int main(){
    Max m;
    
    int a[] = {3, 2, 1, 6, 0, 5};
    int n = sizeof(a)/sizeof(a[0]);
    TreeNode* root = m.constructMaximumBinaryTree(a, n);
    
    cout<<root->val;

    return 0; 
}
6

Java Program

class TreeNode{
    int val;
    TreeNode left;
    TreeNode right;
    
    TreeNode(int x){
        val = x;
    }
    
}
class Max{
    
    static TreeNode constructMaximumBinaryTree(int[] nums){
        return construct(nums, 0, nums.length);
    }
    static TreeNode construct(int[] nums, int l, int r) {
        if (l == r)
            return null;
        int max_i = max(nums, l, r);
        TreeNode root = new TreeNode(nums[max_i]);
        root.left = construct(nums, l, max_i);
        root.right = construct(nums, max_i + 1, r);
        return root;
    }
    static int max(int[] nums, int l, int r) {
        int max_i = l;
        for (int i = l; i < r; i++) {
            if (nums[max_i] < nums[i])
                max_i = i;
        }
        return max_i;
    }
    public static void main (String[] args) {
        int[] a = {3, 2, 1, 6, 0, 5};
        TreeNode root = constructMaximumBinaryTree(a);
        System.out.print(root.val + " ");
            
    }
}
6

Complexity Analysis for Maximum Binary Tree

Time Complexity

O(n2)  (construct function is called n times. We traverse all the n nodes to find the maximum element at each level. In the worst case, depth of tree can be up to n which results in complexity to be n2)

Space Complexity

O(n)  because in the worst case the size of the string can grow up to n where n is the size of the given input string.

READ  Deletion in a Binary Tree

References

Array Interview Questions
Graph Interview Questions
LinkedList Interview Questions
String Interview Questions
Tree Interview Questions