Binary Tree Zigzag Level Order Traversal LeetCode Solution


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Problem Statement

Binary Tree Zigzag Level Order Traversal LeetCode Solution – Given the root of a binary tree, return the zigzag level order traversal of its nodes’ values. (i.e., from left to right, then right to left for the next level and alternate between).

Binary Tree Zigzag Level Order Traversal LeetCode SolutionPin

Input: root = [3,9,20,null,null,15,7]
Output: [[3],[20,9],[15,7]]

Explanation

We carry out simple level-order traversal but reverse alternate levels before adding them to the ans.

In this problem, we need to traverse the binary tree level by level. When we see levels in a binary tree, we need to think about BFS, because it is its logic: it first traverses all neighbors, before we go deeper. Here we also need to change direction on each level as well. So, the algorithm is the following:

  1. We create a queue, where we first put our root.
  2. result is to keep the final result and direction, equal to 1 or -1 or we can keep it as a boolean in the direction of traverse.
  3. Then we start to traverse level by level: if we have k elements in queue currently, we remove them all and put their children instead. We continue to do this until our queue is empty. Meanwhile, we form level list and then add it to result, using correct direction and changing direction after.

Code

C++ Code for Binary Tree Zigzag Level Order Traversal

class Solution {
public:
   vector<vector<int> > zigzagLevelOrder(TreeNode* root) {
    if (root == NULL) {
        return vector<vector<int> > ();
    }
    vector<vector<int> > result;

    queue<TreeNode*> nodesQueue;
    nodesQueue.push(root);
    bool leftToRight = true;

    while ( !nodesQueue.empty()) {
        int size = nodesQueue.size();
        vector<int> row(size);
        for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
            TreeNode* node = nodesQueue.front();
            nodesQueue.pop();

            // find position to fill node's value
            int index = (leftToRight) ? i : (size - 1 - i);

            row[index] = node->val;
            if (node->left) {
                nodesQueue.push(node->left);
            }
            if (node->right) {
                nodesQueue.push(node->right);
            }
        }
        // after this level
        leftToRight = !leftToRight;
        result.push_back(row);
    }
    return result;
}
};

Java Code for Binary Tree Zigzag Level Order Traversal

public class Solution {
    public List<List<Integer>> zigzagLevelOrder(TreeNode root) 
    {
        List<List<Integer>> sol = new ArrayList<>();
        travel(root, sol, 0);
        return sol;
    }
    
    private void travel(TreeNode curr, List<List<Integer>> sol, int level)
    {
        if(curr == null) return;
        
        if(sol.size() <= level)
        {
            List<Integer> newLevel = new LinkedList<>();
            sol.add(newLevel);
        }
        
        List<Integer> collection  = sol.get(level);
        if(level % 2 == 0) collection.add(curr.val);
        else collection.add(0, curr.val);
        
        travel(curr.left, sol, level + 1);
        travel(curr.right, sol, level + 1);
    }
}

Python Code for Binary Tree Zigzag Level Order Traversal

class Solution:
    def zigzagLevelOrder(self, root):
        if not root: return []
        queue = deque([root])
        result, direction = [], 1
        
        while queue:
            level = []
            for i in range(len(queue)):
                node = queue.popleft()
                level.append(node.val)
                if node.left:  queue.append(node.left)
                if node.right: queue.append(node.right)
            result.append(level[::direction])
            direction *= (-1)
        return result

Complexity Analysis for Binary Tree Zigzag Level Order Traversal LeetCode Solution

Time Complexity

O(N)

Space Complexity

O(N)

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