# Python Numbers

Python Numbers – In Python, there are integers, floating-point numbers, and complex numbers. Integers and floating-point numbers are differentiated by the presence or absence of decimal points. And the output of addition and subtraction of integer and float will be floating-point numbers. In this article we will learn about python numbers.

```a=5
type(a)
b=5.0
type(b)```

Complex numbers are represented in the form x+yj where x is the real part and y is the imaginary part.

```c=3+2j
type(c)
c+2
c+3j```

## Type Conversion

In python, we can convert the data types from one format to another.

An integer can be converted to float and complex numbers by the below format.

```complex(3)
complex(3,2)
float(5)```

Number data types like integers, float, and complex numbers can be converted to a string.

```str(5)
str(5.0)
str(3+2j)```

Similarly, String and float can be converted to int using int().

```int('5')
int(5.6)```

But we cannot convert the complex numbers to integers.

## Mathematical functions

### abs(x)

Positive distance between x and 0

```abs(-5.1)
abs(5.1)```

### ceil(x)

The ceil() method returns the smallest integer value, which is greater than or equal to the specified number.

```import math
math.ceil(5.1)```

### floor(x)

Returns the closest integer value which is less than or equal to the specified value.

```import math
math.floor(5.99)```

### max(x1,x2,..) and min(x1,x2,x3,…)

As the name indicates max function returns the largest integer among the given arguments and min returns the smallest integer.

```max(5,3,2,7)
min(5,3,2,7)```

### round(x,[n])

x rounded to n digits from the decimal point. ‘n’ is not mandatory.

```round(5.676,2)
round(5.7)```

### sqrt(x)

Returns the square root of x for x>0

```import math
math.sqrt(14)```

### pow(x,y)

Equivalent to x**y.

`pow(4,2)`

## Random number functions

Random numbers are used in applications like games, simulations, testing, security, and privacy applications. The most commonly used functions are

### choice(x1,x2,x3,..)

Returns a random number from the given sequence

```import random
random.choice([4,1,7,8])```

### randrange(start, stop, step)

A randomly selected element from range(start, stop, step)

```import random
random.randrange(1,10,2)```

### random()

A random float r, such that 0 is less than or equal to r and r is less than 1

```import random
random.random()```

### shuffle([list])

Randomizes the items of a list in place. Returns None.

```import random
l=[1,2,3,4]
random.shuffle(l)
print(l)```

Reference1

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